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Rose Max | Brazilian Singer


The History of Brazilian Music

The Brazilian music has as its main influence the African music, brought by the slavered people from several nations of Africa with their frenetic rhythms and instruments. But his was not the only one influence that came to Brazil at the time of colonization. The Europeans settler brought the scholar, ballroom dancing, the evening parties and religious music. The indigenous hardly left their traces in the mainstream, except in some folklore genres, being mostly a passive participant in the impositions of colonial culture.

  • Choro

    The virtuosity and the recognition of classical musicians at the time were remarkable, so much so that the Brazilian musicians also wanted to perform such work, but on their own way. The Brazilian way of making music was taking shape, versatility, improvisation and the ability of the musicians have become features of “Choro”.

    It was the beginning of a new way to make music in Brazil into the suburbs of Capital Rio de Janeiro. It was a way more charming and tearful to play popular songs coming from Europe, which began to be called “Choro” (which means Cry).

    Choro (literally “cry” in Portuguese, but in context a more appropriate translation would be “lament”), traditionally called chorinho (“little cry” or “little lament”). Originally choro was played by a trio of flute, guitar and cavaquinho (a small chordophone with four strings, similar to the ukulele).

    The young pianist Ernesto Nazareth published his first choro (Não Caio Noutra) in 1878 at the age of 14. Nazareth’s choros are often listed as polkas; he also composed waltzes, schottisches, milongas and Brazilian Tangos. (He resisted the popular term maxixe to represent Brazilian tango.)

    Chiquinha Gonzaga was another important composer of choros and started shortly after Nazareth. Chiquinha Gonzaga composed her first success, the polka-choro “Atraente”, in 1877. In the beginning, the success of choro came from informal groups of friends which played in parties, pubs (botecos), streets, home balls (forrobodós), and also the musical scores published by print houses. By the 1910s, much of the Brazilian first phonograph records are choros.

    The mainstream success of this style of music (By the 1930s) came from the early days of radio, when bands performed live on the air. By the 1950s and 1960s it was replaced by samba and Bossa Nova and other styles of Brazilian popular music, but was still alive in amateur circles called “rodas de choro” (informal choro gatherings in residences and botecos). However, in the late 1970s there was a successful effort to revitalize the genre carried out by some famous artists: Pixinguinha, Waldir Azevedo and Jacob do Bandolim.
    – excerpt from prezi.com and Wikipedia

  • Marchinhas

    The street carnival was brought to Brazil by Europeans in the late eighteenth century.

    While the middle and upper classes made their parties inside halls, with tours and masked balls that imitated the great balls of Paris, the lower class organized “carnival cords” in the streets, doing marches through the streets and creating consequently the samba.

    Unlike samba we know today, the samba carnival marches was called “Marcha Rancho” and was originally played with wind instruments. After the abolition of slavery, many blacks left Bahia to live in Rio de Janeiro. This movement was instrumental in the creation of samba around the 1910s.

    The greatest representative of this genre was Carmen Miranda.
    – excerpt from prezi.com and Wikipedia

  • Samba

    Samba is a Brazilian musical gender that is based in a kind of dance from Africa roots and it is considered one of the main popular culture manifestation in Brazil. Among its original characteristics, samba has its dance with small melodic verses and refrains of unknown creation, the base of the Samba do Recôncavo.

    Even though it is a resulting musical gender of European and African musical structures, it was with the symbols of Brazilian black culture that samba was spread throughout the country.

    Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African – continue reading…

    – excerpts from prezi.com and Wikipedia

  • Maxixe

    First genuinely Brazilian music was the Maxixe, formed from the mix between “Lundu” (It means “Umbigada” and is a kind of very sexualized samba practiced among the slavered people brought from Africa) and the Portuguese “Modinha” (It is a soft composition, usually romantic, played with a viola and danced in ballrooms.

    The maxixe (Portuguese pronunciation: [maˈʃiʃi]), occasionally known as the Brazilian tango, is a dance, with its accompanying music (often played as a subgenre of choro), that originated in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro in 1868, at about the same time as the tango was developing in neighbouring Argentina and Uruguay. It is a dance developed from Afro-Brazilian dances (mainly the lundu) and from European dances (mainly the polka).

    Like the tango, the maxixe travelled to Europe and the United States in the early years of the 20th century.

    The music was influenced by various other forms including the Spanish tango, lundu, polka and habanera.

    – excerpt from prezi.com and Wikipedia

  • Bossa Nova* was born

    Bossa Nova peaked in popularity between 1957 and 1963, right after its birth in Rio de Janeiro’s south zone (which comprises areas such as Ipanema and Copacabana).

    The word “bossa” was said for the first time in the 1930s in “Coisas Nossas” (Our Things) a popular samba song by Noel Rosa. The expression “bossa nova” started being used in the following decade to describe the “samba de breque”, which improvised sudden stops in the music in order to have words.

    Bossa Nova as we know today officially started in 1958 when the vinyl (LP) “Canção do Amor Demais” (Song of Too Much Love), recorded by Elizabeth Cardoso, with music by Tom Jobim and lyrics by Vinícius de Moraes was released. This vinyl included the well-known songs “Chega de Saudade” and “Outra Vez”, where João Gilberto plays the acoustic guitar and a new beat is introduced. Later on, this new beat would be identified as the birth of Bossa Nova.

    Antonio Carlos Jobim, Vinícius de Moraes and young musicians and composers from Rio de Janeiro helped further develop this fusion of and jazz harmonies with smoother, often slower, samba beat, which developed at the beach neighborhoods of Ipanema and, later, the Copacabana nightclubs. Collaboration between composers and singers is at the heart of Bossa Nova, and famous people from the genre like Carlos Lyra, Roberto Menescal, Ronaldo Boscoli and others would often get together to listen to each other’s music and exchange ideas.

    Due to these meetings where so much creative exchange happened, Bossa Nova evolved, changed and became tremendously successful.

    Bossa nova was introduced to the rest of the world by American jazz musicians in the early 1960s, and the song “The Girl from Ipanema” remains probably the best known Brazilian musical export, eventually becoming a kind of jazz standard. Continue reading…

    – excerpts from Wikipedia and Brazil Guide

  • Jovem Guarda

    In the early 60’s, parallel to the success of Bossa Nova, a new genre coming from outside the country began to interest young people in the country.

    The rock of Elvis Presley and the Beatles influenced young people who also wanted to form their bands at home. Also interested in this success and the impact that rock caused among young people, one of the TV channels of the time created the “Young Guard”.

    The program won fans of all ages, making it popular and literally dictating fashion, as one could find many young people on the streets with clothes similar to idols on television. Names were very important movement Roberto Carlos, Erasmo Carlos, Wanderléa, Nalva Aguiar, among others.

    – excerpt from prezi.com

  • Tropicália

    Tropicalia was a Brazilian cultural movement that born under the influence of artistic currents of national and foreign vanguards of pop culture (such as pop-rock and concretism); mixed traditional manifestations of Brazilian culture to radical aesthetic innovations.

    This movement had political objectives as a reflect in much of society under the military dictatorship in the late 1960s. The greatest representatives were Caetano Veloso, Gal Costa, Gilberto Gil, Torquato Neto, Os Mutantes and Tom Zé).
    – excerpt from prezi.com

  • MPB (Brazilian Popular Music)

    The MPB (Brazilian popular music) was formed not only as a cultural movement, but also as a protest against the military dictatorship in the country and presented to the public names such as Chico Buarque, Geraldo Vandre and Edu Lobo.

    The transition to the 1970s was marked by the consolidation of Brazilian popular music, a term that suggested a more sophisticated kind of music than that made in other also popular trends in Brazilian music. Over the years artists sprouted like Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Elis Regina and Maria Bethania.

    – excerpt from prezi.com

  • Pagode

    The pagode is a variation of samba. It has its origins in Rio de Janeiro in the end of 70 decade and early 1980s, from the samba circles of tradition made in the “fundo de quintal”.

    The term “pagode” is present in the Brazilian musical language since at least the nineteenth century. Initially, it was associated with the celebrations taking place in the slave quarters and later became synonymous with any party. Over time, the term “pagode” began to be used as synonymous with samba, because of samba dancers used this term to name their parties.

    As a musical aspect, the pagode born exactly this popular manifestation completely marginal to the musical events of the great means of communication brasileira. From the emergence of new generation of samba in Rio de Janeiro in the eighties, originally these pagodes innovates the form to do samba, the term “pagode” spontaneously name the new derivative musical style samba.

    – excerpt from prezi.com

  • Samba-Reggae

    It emerged between 1986 and 2000 in Bahia, created by the Neguinho do Samba and Mestre Jackson by a mixing of samba-duro (a variant of samba de roda) with reggae featuring two drums, a tambourine a conga drum, a guitar or viola electronics instead of the cavaquinho and instruments of Latin music, with strong influences from merengue, salsa and candomblé.

    – excerpt from prezi.com

  • Axé

    Axé is a music genre that emerged in the state of Bahia in the 1980s during the mass demonstrations of the Salvador Carnival, mixing the Pernambuco frevo, african-Brazilian rhythms, reggae, merengue, forró, maracatu and other african-Latin rhythms.

    – excerpt from prezi.com

  • The 90's

    In the early 1980s, after having been eclipsed by the popularity of disco and Brazilian rock, Samba reappeared in the media with a musical movement created in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro. It was the pagode, a renewed samba, with new instruments like the banjo and the tan-tan. It also had a new language that reflected the way that many people actually spoke by including heavy gíria, or slang. The most popular artists were Zeca Pagodinho, Almir Guineto, Grupo Fundo de Quintal, Jorge Aragão, and Jovelina Pérola Negra.

    In 1995, the world saw one of the most popular Pagode groups, the Gera Samba, later renamed to É o Tchan, come out from Savador. This group created the most sexual dance of the Pagode during the 1990s, mixing a lot of Axé music in it. Some groups like Patrulha do Samba and Harmonia do Samba, also mixed in a bit of Axé. Samba, as a result, morphed during this period, embracing types of music that were growing popular in the Caribbean such as rap, reggae, and rock. Examples of Samba fusions with popular Caribbean music is samba-rap, samba-rock, and samba-reggae, all of which were efforts to not only entertain, but also to unify all Blacks throughout the Americas culturally and politically via song. In other words, samba-rap and the like often carried lyrics that encouraged Black pride, and spoke out against social injustice. Samba, however, is not accepted by all as the national music of Brazil, or as a valuable art form. Light-skinned “upper-class” Brazilians often associated Samba with dark-skinned blacks because of its arrival from West Africa. As a result, there are some light-skinned Brazilians who claim that samba is the music of low-class, dark-skinned Brazilians and, therefore, is a “thing of bums and bandits”.

    Samba continued to act as a unifying agent during the 1990s, when Rio stood as a national Brazilian symbol. Even though it was not the capital city, Rio acted as a Brazilian unifier, and the fact that samba originated in Rio helped the unification process. In 1994, the FIFA World Cup had its own samba composed for the occasion, the “Copa 94”. The 1994 FIFA World Cup, in which samba played a major cultural role, holds the record for highest attendance in World Cup history. Samba is thought to be able to unify because individuals participate in it regardless of social or ethnic group. Today, samba is viewed as perhaps the only uniting factor in a country fragmented by political division.

    The Afro-Brazilians played a significant role in the development of the samba over time. This change in the samba was an integral part of Brazilian nationalism, which was referred to as “Brazilianism”.

    “What appears to be new is the local response to that flow, in that instead of simply assimilating outside influences into a local genre or movement, the presence of foreign genres is acknowledged as part of the local scene: samba-rock, samba-reggae, samba-rap. But this acknowledgment does not imply mere imitation of the foreign models or, for that matter, passive consumption by national audiences.” – Gerard Béhague, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology.

    – from Wikipedia

  • 2000's

    From the year 2000 onwards, there were some artists who were looking to reconnect the most popular traditions of samba. The cases of Marquinhos of Oswaldo Cruz and Teresa Cristina, were, among others, the ones that contributed to the revitalization of the region of Lapa in Rio de Janeiro. In São Paulo, samba resumed the tradition with concerts in Sesc Pompéia Club and with the work of several groups, including the group Quinteto em Branco e Preto which developed the event “Pagode da Vela” (“Pagoda of Sail”). These all helped to attract many artists from Rio de Janeiro, which has established residence in neighborhoods of the capital paulistana.

    Samba was also mixed with drum and bass leading to the foundation of Sambass.

    In 2004, the minister of culture Gilberto Gil submitted to Unesco an application for declaring samba as a Cultural Heritage of Humanity in the category “Intangible Goods” by the Institute of National Historical and Artistic Heritage. In 2005 the samba-de-roda of Baiano Recôncavo was proclaimed part of the Heritage of Humanity by Unesco, in the category of “Oral and intangible expressions”. The Samba is often performed on different dance shows, such as Dancing with the Stars.

    – excerpt from Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samba

* Bossa Nova is a musical sub-genre derived from samba and with strong American jazz influences. Bossa Nova has become a reference of national music. Initially, the term Bossa Nova referred to a way of singing and playing samba but gradually became one of the most important movements in what is known in Brazil as MPB (Música Popular Brasileira, or, Brazilian Popular Music). Bossa Nova brings a sophisticated mix of melody, harmony and rhythm with more elaborate lyrics tied to every day life. In order to create a more relaxed way of singing, this genre of music values pauses and silence. The optimism and enchanting rhythms found in Bossa Nova have captivated and influenced singers and composers all around the world.